# 1. Major Return Measures

## a. calculate and interpret major return measures and describe their appropriate uses;

What is the formula for Holding Period Return? \(R_t = \frac{P_t - P_{t - 1} + D_t}{P_{t-1}}\)

What is the formula for Mean Return? \(\mu = \frac{\sum X_i}{N}\)

What is the formula for Geometric Mean Return? \(G = \sqrt[n]{X_1 X_2 X_3 ... X_n}\)

What is the dollar weighted rate of return? The dollar-weighted rate of return is essentially the internal rate of return (IRR) on a portfolio.

What is time-weighted rate of return? The time-weighted rate of return measures the compound growth rate of $1 initial investment over the measurement period.

What is the formula for return on a portfolio of assets?
\(E(R_p) = \sum\limits_{i} \omega_i E(R_i)\)
- `R_p`

= Return on the portfolio
- `R_i`

= Return on asset `i`

- `\omega_i`

= Weighting (share) of asset `i`

##### Source:

CFA

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- 115.100.02 Portfolio Management - Reading 52 - Portfolio Risk and Return Part I to 115.100.02.01 Portfolio Management - Reading 52 - 1. Major Return Measures