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1. The Principle of Arbitrage

a. explain how the concepts of arbitrage, replication, and risk neutrality are used in pricing derivatives;

What is a derivative? - Derivatives are securities that derive their value from an underlying asset or benchmark. - Common derivatives include futures contracts, forwards, options, and swaps.

What is the arbitrage-free price? When the current price + risk-free borrowing rate equals the forward rate (future price) there is no arbitrage opportunity.

What is risk-neutral pricing? Risk-neutral pricing is when an investor’s risk aversion is not a factor in determining the derivative price.